This lab demonstrates two novel uses of op-amps: negative impedance converters (NICs) and general impedance converters (GICs). To understand how these circuits work, you need to analyze them in sinusoidal steady-state operation or using frequency-domain methods.

**1. Negative-Impedance Converters**

- The NIC shown in figure 1 uses a 356 op-amp and resistors to produce an input
impedance of Z
_{in }= -Z. Design and build a NIC with Z_{in}= -10kW. Choose the resistors R to keep the op-amp supply current from exceeding its maximum for the rated range of input voltages.

- Put a voltage source and 20kW resistor in series with your -10kW NIC and take measurements to verify that the NIC really behaves as -10kW.

**2. General Impedance Converters**

- Figure 2 shows a GIC which is built using two op-amps and five
impedances. The input impedance of a GIC is given by

Z_{1} Z_{3} Z_{5}/(Z_{2} Z_{4}).

- Build a GIC to simulate (act as) a 10kW resistor using two 356 op-amps and five resistors.
- Use this simulated resistor in series with a real 10kW resistor to build a voltage divider as shown in figure 3. Drive the voltage divider with a 1kHz, 1V peak-to-peak sine wave. Does the output look like what you would expect?

- A typical use of GICs is to simulate inductors. If Z
_{2}or Z_{4 }is a capacitor and the other impedances are resistors, then Z_{in}is the impedance of an inductor. GICs are used to simulate inductors because it is virtually impossible to build an inductor as part of an integrated circuit, whereas op-amps, capacitors and resistors are relatively easy to build. Modify your GIC such that it acts like a 10H inductor. - Use your "ideal'' 10H inductor in the RL circuit shown in figure 4. Determine the circuit's time constant t. (One method of finding t is to use an input square wave of period 10t to represent a step input and measure the 10% to 90% rise time from which t can be computed as in lab 3.)
- Show that this is the time constant you would expect if the inductor and resistor were both ideal.
- Increase the amplitude of the input voltage until the output becomes distorted. Why does the response of the circuit with the simulated inductor depart from the ideal response?

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